Lee Hawkers – A 1960s Cape Breton Adolescent Hide-‘n-Seek Game – A Precursor to Paint Ball?

There are segments of sociology, found perhaps only on Cape Breton Island, that need to be recorded, if not studied. The game of “Lee Hawkers” is such a segment; a common summer night cry of “1-2-3 Lee Hawkers” heard from the woods surrounding the New Waterford neighbourhood of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This game of modified hide-and-seek involving two teams was part of teen years in the mid-1960s. Lee Hawkers was a creative hide-and-seek game played in the specific suburban area of New Waterford called River Ryan/Scotchtown.

The River Ryan/Scotchtown area was, and still is today, a residential community. Unlike today back then the neighbourhoods were more widely interlaced with forests and fields. Throughout the 1960s, summer days would see teenaged boys playing baseball, pitching horseshoes, building forts in the woods, shooting practice rounds with BB guns , or biking out of town to Kilkenny Lake for a swim. But what would these typically testosterone-driven males do for night-time fun? What mischief could they find cloaked in the darkness of sultry summer nights?

The mischief arose when the child’s game of Hide-and-Seek morphed into a more adult oriented game involving two teams, a ‘jail’ and few, but specific, rules of engagement around being captured and being freed from jail. The best recollection is that this after dark game was originally a male only sport. Two teams of male teens would take turns being the captured (Hiders) or the captors (Seekers). To begin, in a clearing, a field or in someone’s dirt driveway, using a tree branch or the heel of a player’s boot or sneaker, a large circle (6-8 feet in diameter) would be roughly marked in the sun-baked ground. This would become the jail into which the captured Hiders would be thrown by the Seekers.

To capture or catch a hiding member of the opposing team, the Seekers would start their hunt in the dark wooded areas for any Hiders. It’s dark. It’s the forest. Seekers could jump out at a Hider… so usually the hunt was carried out in pairs of Seekers. But why the name Lee Hawkers? Read on… once a Hider was isolated, according to the original rules of seek and capture, a Seeker would be required to spit (yes a hawker!) on the Hider, pound them on the back while yelling “1-2-3 Lee Hawkers”. This marked the Hider as a “catch” or “captured”. The Seekers would lead the captured Hider back to jail (the circle) for safe keeping. The “Lee” (short for leeward) in “Lee Hawkers” was a obvious warning that you should spit, or hawk, in the direction of the wind to avoid getting hit with your own spit (ugh!). And so this spitting, or hawking – the “1-2-3 Lee Hawkers” capture sequence – would be repeated until all the Hiders were caught and in jail. Once all the Hiders were captured, the teams would switch roles – Seekers would become Hiders and Hiders would become Seekers. Hide. Catch. Jail. Switch. Were that …

"Lee Hawkers – A 1960s Cape Breton Adolescent Hide-‘n-Seek Game – A Precursor to Paint Ball?"

Sports Injury Law

Sports are a pastime and are meant to be fun. Minor injuries can occur and are even inevitable in certain sports but serious injury caused by another person is a different story and may be grounds for a lawsuit.

If you have been injured by the actions of another player or a coach or a referee, you should first seek immediate medical attention. Then, depending on your situation, filing a lawsuit may be the appropriate next step for you. It is extremely important that the attorney you choose to handle your case is one who has handled sports injury cases before and is, therefore, familiar with this tricky area of the law.

Was it a contact or non-contact sport?

The general view of the courts is that sports are physical and sometimes dangerous and you are responsible for taking that risk. However, that doesn’t mean another player or coach or referee cannot be held liable if you are seriously injured.

The standard in personal injury cases is negligence – if someone’s negligence causes injury, they are liable. This is still the rule in non-contact sports. An example of a non-contact sport is tennis. If you were injured during a tennis match, then you would sue under a negligence theory – i.e. the player or coach was negligent in some way that caused your injury.

However, with contact sports, there is the contact sports exception (also known as the contact sports doctrine), which states that a person is only liable if their actions were intentional or willful and wanton. Contact sports include soccer, baseball and basketball. If physical contact is an expected part of the sport, then it qualifies as a contact sport. If you were injured while playing a contact sport and you believe that the injury was caused by another player’s intentional actions, you would sue under the contact sports exception.

Proving it was intentional or willful or wanton

Proving that the defendant acted intentionally or recklessly will depend on the facts and other factors such as whether the action is what is acceptable or routine in that particular sport. For example, brushing into a player as they slide into home base is typical but tripping the player is not. The facts of your case and the range of normal activity in the particular sport you were playing will be used to prove intent.

Was it a full contact sport?

Full contact sports are another exception all their own. For these sports, the standard is intentional or completely beyond normal activity for that particular sport. Full contact sports include football, hockey and boxing, where physical contact is actually an element of the game. So, if you were seriously injured during a football game, you would have to prove that the defendant’s actions were intentional or that the defendant’s actions went completely beyond what is acceptable in that particular sport.

Was it caused by a non-participant?

It is believed that holding non-participants like a coach or a referee accountable for …

"Sports Injury Law"

How You Can Benefit From Snooker Lessons

In the UK and in many other parts of the world snooker has become a very popular cue sport with many people that are keen to play either for leisure or even in competitions and tournaments. Snooker is, of course, also played as a professional sport, with some of the big names in snooker including Alex Higgins, Steve Davis, and Steven Hendry.

Snooker is a great game to play for people that are out socialising and want to do more than just sit in a pub or bar. You will find snooker facilities in all sorts of places, from bars and pubs to specialist snooker halls and community centres to name but a few. Once you get your head around them the rules of snooker are pretty straightforward. However, in order to be able to play the game property you need more than just the knowledge about the rules.

As a cue sport snooker involves certain skills in order to be successful at the game. If you want to play this sport successfully then you need to learn about factors such as the stance, cue control, precision – remember, this is a game that does require a lot of control and if you have not really played cue sports before then the rules of the game will be the least of your problems!

Many people that want to get into playing snooker or simply want to improve their snooker playing skills decide to take snooker lessons. The great news is that you can get snooker tutorials and lessons online, so you can learn more about the ins and outs of playing this game properly from the comfort of your own home.

These snooker lessons will cover a wide range of very important elements that will help you to learn more about developing your snooker skills or will help you to improve upon existing skills. This includes areas such as your aim, cut control, making basic shots, the basic play positions and stance, and the fundamentals of playing the game.

For those that already play snooker and want to improve their skills snooker lessons can also prove invaluable. You can enjoy advanced snooker lessons online and these will also cover a range of skills but on a more advanced level. This includes advanced shots, playing in advanced positions, safety and defense, and more. If you already play snooker to some level you will be surprised at how quickly you can get a lot better at this game with the help on these online snooker lessons.…

"How You Can Benefit From Snooker Lessons"

Football Pads – More is More

It is interesting to observe how athletes approach the potential for injury in sports. Some sports, such as ruby, are played with almost no protection, at least relative to the potential injuries that can occur. In such sports, pain and suffering considered simply part of the game, a badge of honor that you played well and did not back down. Other sports use rules to protect the players. Soccer, for example, uses minimal protective equipment, but the rules prevent the players from hitting or otherwise hurting each other. (Or at least, the rules do this in theory. Some soccer players are notorious for taking matters into their own hands, or cleats.) But some sports seem to feel that the more physical protection a player has, the better. American football is perhaps the most spectacular example of this approach to player safety, as it covers the entire body of the player with pads and other types of protection.

It makes sense that football players wear helmets. The sport often combines violent impacts with both other players and the ground, and the head is the most vulnerable point on the human body. A football helmet actually consist of a number of different parts, all of which are designed to protect specific portions of the head. These parts include the overall shell, jaw pads, face mask, chin strap and mouth guard. However, all these different levels of protection, head injuries still occur in football with relative frequency.

Football shoulder pads consist of a hard plastic shell with shock-absorbing foam padding between the shell and player's shoulders. This piece of equipment is donned over the head and rests on the shoulders, protecting them, the chest and the ribs. It is these pads that are responsible for the typical appearance of football players, ie broad shouldered. Shoulder pads, like helmets, are designed to mitigate the brutal hits a player is required to take in order to play this sport. The foam padding absorbs the impact and the plastic shell distributes the impact of force, making broken bones less likely. Football shoulder pad designs vary according to the player's position. For example, quarterback's pads will be lighter and less constricting to allow him greater speed and freedom of movement.

Many football players may consider the jockstrap to be the most important piece of protective gear used in the sport. While a typical jockstrap is designed to simply support, one intended for use in football often has an impact-resistant cup that will, to some extent, protect male genitalia. Interestingly, defensive jockstraps are not always required in football; The preference sees to vary according to team and individual.

The pants of a football player do not escape the sport's signature padding. The interiors of these pieces of clothing contain a total of four pads, one for each thigh and one for each knee. These pads are removable so that the pants can be washed without the pads warping. Each pad is inserted into the pants via pockets on …

"Football Pads – More is More"

Head Injury Prevention in Ice Skating


Physical activity is an essential part of being healthy. In children, activity helps build strong bones and muscles, decreases the likelihood of developing obesity, and promotes positive mental health. Children are recommended to have 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily.

In the United States, more than 30 million children and teens participate in sports. Of that number, approximately 3.5 million children and adolescents ages fourteen and under are hurt annually while participating in recreational activities. In 2002, The National Safe Kids Campaign estimated that 13,700 children were treated in hospital emergency rooms for ice skating related injuries. Many of these are preventable head injuries if protective equipment, such as helmets or halos, is used.

Gliding across the ice, with the cool wind whipping across a skater’s face is an exhilarating feeling. One push can propel a skater far down the glistening, snowy surface. Worrying about a head injury is often far from a skater’s mind, as many participants are not aware of the possibility of head injury from ice skating. The goals of this article are to raise awareness about potential head injury from ice skating and to promote the use of helmets in skating, similar to what is required in cycling, skiing, and ice hockey.

Review of Injury Statistics

A concussion is a mild form of head injury, usually due to a blow to the head, which may cause disorientation, memory loss, or unconsciousness. Repeated concussions and loss of consciousness can result in traumatic brain injury or TBI.

An estimated 10% of all head and spinal cord injuries are due to sports related activities. Socially, athletes can feel undue pressure from family, coaches, and teammates to return to play quickly after a head injury. These influences can prevent an athlete from receiving the medical care he or she requires. In particular, parents and coaches can push their children too hard in an attempt to fulfill their own athletic aspirations. Athletes who return to play too soon or who suffer repeated injury to the head can develop chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, whose symptoms can include slowed speech, confusion, tremors, and mental deterioration. Most recently, CTE gained media attention when a settlement was reached with the National Football League, or NFL and thousands of players and families. The case, which involved more than 4,500 plaintiffs, calls for the NFL to pay for medical exams, compensation, and research related to head injuries sustained while playing professional football. Plaintiffs are committed to making the game safer at all levels and to educate the public; including parents of the four million children who play youth and high school football. Plaintiffs are committed to helping the focus on player safety trickle down to the youth level.

Awareness and education are key factors in injury prevention and return to play decisions. When an athlete suffers a head injury, a sideline assessment using the Standardized Assessment of Concussion should be completed by a medical professional. If a physician is not available, the coach …

"Head Injury Prevention in Ice Skating"

Abraham Kwadu Munabi: Uganda’s Greatest Triple Jumper

During the late 1960’s and early 1970’s an excellent student at the prestigious rigorous Medical School at renowned Makerere University in Kampala established himself as one of the top African and Commonwealth of Nations’ triple jumpers. Abraham Kwadu Munabi, born on 19th December 1940, was like Uganda 1960’s champion sprinter Amos Omolo apparently a late-age entrant to significant sports competition. Munabi was the biggest name and medal hope in Uganda field athletics during the time. The national record that Munabi established in the triple jump, still stands four decades later.

But no, it is not for his athletic achievements that the world has mostly come to recognize Munabi. Dr. Munabi moved to the USA in the late-1970’s for advanced studies, where he was involved in specialized experimentation and research in reproduction. In the space of more than thirty years, Munabi’s name has appeared on a stream of research papers. Munabi is renowned as a fertility expert, a reproductive endocrinologist. A board certified gynecologist, Munabi founded and is director the Reproductive Science Institute of Suburban Philadelphia in Pennsylvania.

Munabi jumped to a personal best of 16.11m and national triple jump record in September 1969. Here Munabi won gold in the triple jump at the East and Central African regional Games. The annual Games were held the capital city Kampala in Munabi’s native Uganda. Munabi’s jump-length win of 16.11m far surpassed the competition. At the same tournament, Munabi won gold in the long jump with 7.24m. Munabi would again bag gold in the triple jump at these regional Games in 1972, held in the Tanzania capital Dar-es-Salaam. The winning length was 15.40m.

The next most significant international sports gathering for Munabi would be the Commonwealth of Nation’s Games of 1970 that were held in Edinburgh in Scotland. On July 24th, twenty-eight international competitors would interchangeably hop, skip, and jump in the qualifying round for the finals that would happen the next day. Munabi, with a jump of 15.51 meters, was placed ninth out of the thirteen finalists. The top five finalists were Australian Mile McGrath (16.09m), Samuel Igun of Nigeria (16.08m), Mohinder Singh Gill of India (15.90m), Australian Phil May (15.87m), and Tony Wadhams of England (15.80m). Despite his ninth place ranking, Abe felt he would ably grab a medal for Uganda. The finals witnessed Phil Gray (Australia), with a length of 16.72m, take the gold; Mike McGrath (16.41m) also of Australia, bagged the silver; and Mohinder Singh (India) was third after a jump of 15.90m. Abraham Munabi of Uganda was placed, a not too disappointing, fourth (15.73m).

These Commonwealth of Nations Games of 1970 witnessed Uganda emerge, with an impressive collection of medals, becoming the Commonwealth boxing champions. Boxing gold medals were won by Mohamed Muruli (light-welterweight), James Odwori (light-flyweight) and Benson Masanda (heavyweight); and the silver medals were won by flyweight Leo Rwabwogo and lightweight Deogratias Musoke. In athletics, Uganda’s William Koskei (silver medal in 400m-hurdles) and Judith Ayaa (bronze medal in the 400m) were the prize winners. John Akii-Bua …

"Abraham Kwadu Munabi: Uganda’s Greatest Triple Jumper"

Sports in Central America – Interesting Facts and Figures!

Road to London 2012!


Did you know- Guatemala’s racewalker Julio Urias obtained a bronze medal for placing third in the men’s 50 km walk in the Pan American Games in 1995.


Did you know- Without a doubt, Alexis Arguello was one of the world’s most successful professional boxers. Certainly he was the toast of the Latin American sporting community. Between 1974 and 1983, Nicaragua’s former boxer Alexis Arguello won six world championships ( featherweights & lightweights) and became an icon in Latin America. Sports Illustrated published an interview with Arguello in October 1985.

Pan American Games

Did you know- By October, 1975, the Panamanian Olympic Committee sent a national delegation, made up of 19 athletes, to Mexico City to participate in the Pan American Games, the most important pre-Olympic event in the Western Hemisphere since 1951. The team from Panama competed in six sports: aquatics (1), cycling (5), fencing (1), shooting (6), weightlifting (2), and wrestling (4). Two weightlifters, Narciso Oran and Pablo Justiniani, and one wrester, Segundo Olmedo, were the most prominent national athletes in the international games. Ironically Guy Abrahams, the country’s best athlete, did not compete in Mexico. The following year, Abrahams, an Afro-Panamanian sprinter, finished fifth in the men’s 100m, with a time of 10, 25 seconds, at the 1976 Montreal Games.

Host Country

Did you know- Managua, the capital city of Nicaragua, hosted the Caribbean Boxing Tournament in 1984. Eight nations competed in the international event: Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and the host country. Puerto Rico and Venezuela did not compete in Managua. The Nicaragua’s boxer Gustavo Herrera won the gold medal in the 54-kilogram category at the 1984 Central American and Caribbean Tournament.

Pan American Games

Did you know- The Nicaraguan Olympic Committee did not participate in three Pan American Games: in 1951 in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in 1959 in Chicago (U.S.), and Sao Paulo (Brazil) in 1963.


Did you know- The men’s softball team of Guatemala came in 8th place in the Central American and Caribbean Games in 1982.


Did you know- Toward the end of the 1990s, Panama’s swimmer Eileen Coparropa -the nation’s best female athlete in that time- captured a silver medal in the Pan American Games in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. During the past Games, by 1995, she had finished fifth in the women’s 50m.


Did you know- Taekwondo, an Olympic sport, is a popular sport in Costa Rica and Guatemala.

Track & Field

Did you know- At the 1938 Central American and Caribbean Games, Jennings Blackett (Panama) set a new international record of 10,4 seconds in the men’s 100m, one of the best records in the 1930s.


Did you know-By 1974, Panama won the right to compete in the Men’s Volleyball World Cup in the United Mexican States. This Spanish-speaking nation became the first Central American country to participate in the FIVB World Championships.…

"Sports in Central America – Interesting Facts and Figures!"

Important Tips to Purchase Snowboarding Pants

Snowboarding pants is very essential in snowboarding because it used to ensure the protection of the rider from injury, weather situations and other external forces. There is really an accepted manner in order to maintain the core warmth and avoid you from chilling off simply and this process is called the Three Layer System. The system consists of the base layer, the insulation layer, and the outer shell. The base coating is the layer which is in direct contact with the skin and its only purpose is to take away the moisture out of the skin.

The insulation layer which lies over the base coating is used also to get the moisture out from the body; However, its main purpose is to isolate the body by means of confining the body heat. The external layer is the coat directly in contact with the outside surroundings. It is must be windproof, waterproof and contains a breathable passage for the moisture.

Majority of snowboard pants possess two or three layers in one outfit. Most of them are waterproof, have thin external shell and an effective insulation layer. During hot weathers, you are allowed to wear the snowboarding pants only. Temporarily, when the climate turns colder, the base layer is put on benefit the snowboarding pants. However, when the climate becomes very cold, you have the right to use all the three layers although you are wearing extra insulation layer between the bottom layer and snowboarding pants.

The following are some tips to consider when buying:

• Do not wear normal pants during snowboarding. You really have to buy snowboarding pants specifically if you only start to learn the sports. Bear in mind that as a beginner, you are able to stumble mostly on your back or on with your knees. So, if you wear casual jeans there is a tension that the ice would melt each time you fall down the snow and you will absolutely get soaked and cold.

• If you buy snowboard pants, try to look the pants that will not touch the crotch area or the pants that has adequate room so you can be able to make your tricks comfortably.

• You need to expect some rough falls. Therefore, you have to look for a snowboarding pants that has an extra padding intended for the knees and also the buttocks area because these parts of the body which commonly catch your falls. The additional padding can not provide you adequate protection but can minimize the chances of any harm plus the possibility of having your snowboarding pants damaged, therefore losing the waterproof capability.

• Choose the pants with quality and not the price. If you want sufficient safety and durability, do not buy cheap snowboarding pants which will break after one day of practicing. If you like to become a professional, you have to buy the accurate snowboarding pants which will last until the time you become an expert already.

• Select the pants that have the …

"Important Tips to Purchase Snowboarding Pants"

Sports Merchandise Makes Unique Christmas Presents

If you're looking for some fun and unique Christmas gifts for friends and family members this year, consider sports merchandise. You can find sports decor that is perfect for any room of the house or for the office.

If you're interested in a complete bedroom makeover for yourself or for your child this holiday season, then sports bedding is the way to go. You can find comforters, sheet sets, bedskirts, and pillow shams featuring many of your favorite NFL, NHL, and NCAA teams.

Maybe you only need a few accent pieces to give a bedroom the ultimate fan look. Consider items like toss pillows, bedrests, wall border, and window coverings with your favorite team's logo for that extra something special.

You can even bring the sports fan look into the bathroom with a jersey mesh shower curtain showcasing your favorite NFL, NHL, or NCAA team colors and logo.

How about some items that the sports fans in your life can hang outdoors to let all the neighbors know who they are rooting for? You can find a huge variety of flags and banners for NFL, NHL, MLB, NBA, and NCAA teams, as well as for many NASCAR drivers.

Everyone could use something to snuggle under during the cold winter months. Extra soft and plush sports throw blankets are the perfect gift for anyone who is a fan of the NBA, NFL, NCAA, NHL, MLB, or NASCAR.

There are even some great sports decor items available to make a statement in a home office or corporate office. Waste baskets and wall clocks featuring favorite sports teams make great additions to the office. For football fans, Riddell mini helmets are a great item to display on a desk or shelf.

Another unique memorabilia item for the football fan is an NFL Photomint. The NFL photomint features photographs and collectible coins from some of the most memorable moments in NFL history.

There is a great variety of sports decor items that make perfect gifts for the sports fans on your list. Your friends and family members, both big and small, will be facilitated when they unwrap a treasure featuring their favorite sports team or college. You can find the perfect sports gift for your friend, loved one, coworker, or boss to treasure for many years to come. …

"Sports Merchandise Makes Unique Christmas Presents"

Photo Football Mini Helmet – Small But Trendy Gear

Photo football mini helmet is a cute memorabilia to have since they are half the size of the original helmets worn at matches. These are also innovative gift articles to a person fond of sports and of a particular team. In sports, most people are keen on having some form of memorabilia in their house, and the college football mini helmets are an affordable option to many. They are small in size, so take up less space in your house or apartment, and are as good as the big thing, so completely totally worth having one. And then, when you have made enough money to afford for a normal sized helmet, you can always buy that. There are many websites, from where you can buy your mini helmet and if you are interested in any other product, can purchase them as well. However, the price quoted by the sites could be different, so it is better to do some research before going ahead with your purchase. Also check on their authenticity and if the helmets are made using reliable sturdy plastic shells, else they will break by the time they reach you. Since the sites require you to make the payment online, be wary of scams or frauds.

For those who are into collecting of sports related products, they may go overboard at times with their hobby. For such people, there are available available wherey if they are to buy more than 4mini helmets, they might get the 5th free or they could get a discounted deal on 5helmets. They normally take about 2 working days to deliver the products, if they do not make sure to check with them on the same or ask for a refund. The graphics on the miniature helmets are pretty specific and very clear, and some have autographs by a player. Either the quarterback or their captain, these might be priced higher than others, so check on all these details while making your selection.

The NCAA teams and the others who play in the Big 12 matches are all teams favored on miniature helmets by fans. The vinyl coating on the helmets, the details on the straps and face mask, the kind of colors used will also reflect on the quality of the helmets themselves. For children who are passionate about sports, but are just learning to play, these college football mini helmets make thought gifts, and this might be the beginning of a long journey playing the sport. Football is a sport that is worshiped in the United states and since there are numerous college teams, students and others alike enjoy playing, watching and possessing a piece of the sport. The college football mini helmets make for cute curio items and do not require any sort of maintenance as they are small and just need to be dusted now and then and last for near a decade. Make a dash for a sports websites and grab your mini helmet before it gets sold …

"Photo Football Mini Helmet – Small But Trendy Gear"