Report Writing – How to Format a Business Report

Introduction

Report writing is a time consuming business so it is a great shame if, having devoted all that time to writing your report, the quality is such that hardly anyone can be bothered to read it. Quite frankly, most report readers do not actually read all the report; they are too short of time. You might as well know it and accept it — that is normal. They only read the parts that interest them. Frequently these are the summary, the conclusions and recommendations.

Of course, some readers do need all the details you so carefully included, they are specialists, but most do not. Most readers just need two things: that the information they want is where they expect it to be so they can find it, and that it is written clearly so that they can understand it.

It is similar to reading a newspaper. You expect the news headlines to be on the front page; the sports coverage to be at the back; the TV listings on page whatever and the editorial comment in the middle. If what you want is not in its usual place then you have to hunt for it and you may get irritated. So it is with a report.

There is a convention as to what goes where. Stick with the convention and please your readers. Break the convention and people may get slightly irritated – and bin your report.

So what is that convention, the standard format?

Standard Sections

Title Section. In a short report this may simply be the front cover. In a long one it could also include Terms of Reference, Table of Contents and so on.

Summary. Give a clear and very concise account of the main points, main conclusions and main recommendations. Keep it very short, a few percent of the total length. Some people, especially senior managers, may not read anything else so write as if it were a stand-alone document. It isn’t but for some people it might as well be. Keep it brief and free from jargon so that anyone can understand it and get the main points. Write it last, but do not copy and paste from the report itself; that rarely works well.

Introduction. This is the first part of the report proper. Use it to paint the background to ‘the problem’ and to show the reader why the report is important to them. Give your terms of reference (if not in the Title Section) and explain how the details that follow are arranged. Write it in plain English.

Main Body. This is the heart of your report, the facts. It will probably have several sections or sub-sections each with its own subtitle. It is unique to your report and will describe what you discovered about ‘the problem’.

These sections are most likely to be read by experts so you can use some appropriate jargon but explain it as you introduce it. Arrange the information logically, normally putting

"Report Writing – How to Format a Business Report"

Women’s Bodybuilding: Controversial Fad or Life Changing Sport

One of the biggest changes in the world of bodybuilding has been the growing proportion of women in the sport. Increasingly more and more women are choosing bodybuilding as a method to improve their health, fitness and strength, which is hardly surprising given how successful this sport can be in achieving these goals.

One of the pioneers of female bodybuilding was Lisa Lyon, who developed many of the dance-like muscle poses that are still popular today. She also sought out a variety of photographers that took the photos that introduced the sculpted female body to the world. The stunning Rachel McLish, who won the very first female Ms. Olympia title then set the standards that many female bodybuilders still try to achieve today. She managed to combine her sexy looks with muscularity and body tone and in doing so created a benchmark that many people still aspire to.

The world of women’s bodybuilding however had to travel a relatively rocky road to reach the point of relative acceptance that it enjoys today. Women had never built their muscles for aesthetic purposes before, although they have always used other forms of exercise to keep fit and attractive. In any case, bodybuilding for women was not widely approved of at first and was criticized by both men and women. These days however, women’s bodybuilding, while not nearly as popular as men’s bodybuilding is a much more accepted form of fitness. Whether this is simply the sport itself maturing, changing personal beliefs or the growing equality between the sexes, female bodybuilding is enjoying a much higher profile these days.

The most of obvious benefit of female bodybuilding is its effect on health and fitness. As has been written before, bodybuilding provides a very effective way to manage weight, health and body shape that many other general exercises and sports simply can’t offer. This statement holds true whether the participant is male or female. Many women suffer from strength deficits, body weight issues and a loss of physical capacity, especially after childbirth, and bodybuilding is a great way to manage these issues. Unfortunately many women concentrate exclusively on aerobic exercise and never perform any form of resistance training as they have been told they will look like a man if they lift weights, which is of course a myth.

It is very common for women to try a variety of dieting programs, some of which are extremely unhealthy and misleading. These kinds of diets can cause a loss of general health, bone mass, and lean muscle mass. Bodybuilding can help avoid all of these issues as participants learn to integrate exercise and nutrition using well-developed and well-understood scientific principles into their daily lives and routines, which has obvious health benefits.

Many of these bodybuilding workouts that can be easily found online are as relevant for women as they are for men. Although the goal might be to develop muscle tone as opposed to developing muscle size this is easily accommodated by varying the sets, …

"Women’s Bodybuilding: Controversial Fad or Life Changing Sport"

Supporting Your NCAA Pride With Your Team Colors

Saturday gets a little bit sweeter when the brisk fall rolls in and the season tickets are ready, having fans tied up for the rest of the NCAA college football season. For diehards, it can even be a little tricky working in the holidays with all of those bowl games to keep you busy. It is all about showing off that college team pride.

Tailgating. It is a must. In fact, it is almost a weekly ritual. Pop up the tent, turn on the grill, play a few tailgate games and though it seems like it is not soon enough, it is game time! So get ready to cheer on your tigers and chant about your razorbacks or get ready to roll tide. Whoever your NCAA sports team is, you have almost everything on your checklist.

However, there is one thing missing. What to wear to your NCAA college game or even to hang out with the buddies to watch the game is almost comparable to how a woman might pick out her outfit on any given day. It takes thought and care. Shall you wear your jersey or your lucky old Clemson t-shirt that seems to bring a big win despite the fact that it has more holes than Swiss cheese?

Do you go to the stadium in your full war paint? Maybe your game is even on a big local network and the shirt has come off and the letters of your favorite sports network are painted across your chest. Sure, this is acceptable … if you are a student still. It is not very likely that the average adult NCAA college football fan goes to the games sporting paint and team tattoos and spray painted hair when they have officially retired from that stage of their life. Come on, you want to look classy and somewhat normal even.

Let us consider proper attire for NCAA football games. It is borderline chilly weather with a little bit of brisk breeze, generally, though it depends on the reason. It is the beginning of fall for goodness sake and yes, you will have the opportunity to tailgate and even look a little bit tasteful. But first, let us think about some of the traditional college costumes that NCAA football fans across the United States have adapted. Many styles are specific to the regions and where schools are located. Fortunately, some of those styles become fads that pass within a couple of years while others maintain tradition.

For those football fans in the southwest, good food and good weather is what they have in store for NCAA football games. They might just have their fitted hats, their university t-shirts with cut off sleeves and board shorts. And southwest region football fans will not forget the eye black paint under the eyes in case of that ever so bright glare.

On the west coast, specifically the mid-Pacific region, the male football fans are just a little bit more on the preppy but …

"Supporting Your NCAA Pride With Your Team Colors"

Martial Arts – Choosing The Right One For You

So you’ve finally decided to take the plunge and take up a martial art. Maybe you’re doing so as a hobby or maybe you feel the need to be able to defend yourself. To be honest with you, there’s a myriad of reasons one can have for wanting to study a martial art and recognizing those reasons is the most important determining factor. There is no one right martial art there is only the right one for you. Hopefully this article will help you understand the differences of each martial art and allow you to make a more educated decision.

The first thing you need to do when choosing a martial art is to figure out all the reasons you may have for doing so. Is your sole reason for taking up a martial art to get in shape? If so you may find more benefits in any of the various forms of kickboxing. Their classes tend to be fast paced and also usually include skipping and calisthenics. In addition to getting in shape you will also learn to effectively punch and kick which not only will give you self confidence but will also allow you to be able to defend yourself.

Maybe you’re looking to be able to do the fantastical kicks and moves you see all the action heroes doing in your favorite movies. Or would you just like to be able to do something that reassembles dancing or seems more artistic? If so you’re better tailored to Kung-fu or more particularly Wushu, one of the more popular forms of kung-fu. Whether it is, Jet- Li, Jackie Chan or even Bruce Lee for that matter they all studied Wushu! This art consists of weapons training as well as flashy kicking and even lion dance training.

A lot of people that get into martial arts once were participants in competitive sports and seem to miss that aspect of their lives. Although there are many Martial arts that may fit this bill, I tend to recommend, Karate and Taekwondo. The reason I chose these arts is due to the fact that both Karate and Taekwondo have tournaments based around semi-contact point fighting and weapons demonstrations. Point fighting is unlike real fighting in the sense that as soon as someone lands a strike, you stop fighting and start over again. There is less chance of injury and these competitions are less spirited and aggressive then full contact tournaments. In a weapons competition you formulate an individual routine with your weapon of choice and have an allotted time frame to complete your routine. These competitions are a lot like a gymnastics or dance recital.

Last but certainly not least are the people who would like to learn how to effectively defend themselves in real life situations. The 2 most respected martial arts in my opinion for self defense are Krav Maga and Jiu-jitsu. Both these arts consists of weapons training, defense against weapons, throws, joint manipulations and striking. What more can you …

"Martial Arts – Choosing The Right One For You"

Wrestling: How a Pudgy Kid Became an Olympic Champion

Pudge

The Olympic champion wrestler Dave Schultz was known as “Pudge” in wrestling circles. He was a little bit chubby in his younger days. In fact, Dave’s friend Steve Holt stated in an article that Dave was a complete butterball with no well-defined muscles when in high school. He claims that Dave would often be mistaken for a score keeper or a trainer.

Steve first met Dave at a weekend tournament that Steve was wrestling in during his high school years. Steve states, “I noticed this fat, pudgy freshman kid sitting in the bleachers observing me during each round. He was watching and studying me like a scientist does with a white lab rat in a maze. I believe he was even taking down notes!”

According to Jim Humphrey, former head coach at Indiana University, “He didn’t look like an athlete, with his slumped shoulders, shuffling gait, and being pigeon-toed. He wasn’t particularly fast.”

So, what set Dave “Pudge” Schultz apart from other wrestlers? How did he become so dominant?

Sought Out Mentors

The young Dave Schultz became a wrestling fanatic. He couldn’t get enough. He wanted to learn the best techniques he could and sought out ways to get in extra practice time.

For instance, Chris Horpel first met Dave when Horpel was already an NCAA All-American wrestler for Stanford. The 14-year-old Dave walked over from Palo Alto High, asking the 21-year-old Horpel to wrestle with him. Horpel agreed, hoping to get rid of Dave after a few sessions. To his surprise, Dave kept coming back.

According to a Sports Illustrated article entitled “Brothers and Brawlers,” “Dave, dyslexic as a child, had taken up wrestling in the seventh grade on the advice of a teacher who thought it would help him build self-confidence. It did that and more. By his freshman year at Palo Alto High, Dave was a wrestling fanatic. He wore his singlet under his school clothes and his wrestling shoes everywhere. He trained as many as three times a day. After his high school workout, he’d ride his bike a few miles up the road so he could practice with the Stanford wrestling team, whose coach, Joe DeMeo, would then drive him 30 miles north to Skyline College for a session with a club called the Peninsula Grapplers.”

Dedication

Dave Schultz wasn’t a wrestling prodigy. He was dominant right from the beginning. It took time and dedication.

Dave Schultz had dyslexia and was teased and made fun of by other kids. When Dave first stepped on the wrestling mat in the seventh grade, he was clumsy and uncoordinated. He didn’t even make the varsity team and while wrestling JV he won only half of his matches. Many kids would have given up and found a new sport or hobby but not Dave. He was determined, and within two years was ranked the second best wrestler in the world for his age group.

I’ve already noted that Dave Schultz practiced a lot. He put in more hours …

"Wrestling: How a Pudgy Kid Became an Olympic Champion"

Ancient Japanese Culture and Modern Japan – The Impacts Seen Today

This is a broad ranging topic that requires an exhaustive account of history and sociology. Since I live in Japan I will give you just a few points to explore based on my experience living and working here in Japan. How has Japan changed since ancient times to the present has a lot to do with the national identity and character associated with Japanese culture.

In Ancient Japan, the Japanese were an agrarian people. They toiled in their fields and farmlands yielding crops, vegetable, and fruit that they would either sell on the market, trade with others, or give to marauding samurai. In terms of wealth the Japanese were poor, but they shared what they had. They were generous and thoughtful.

There was a strong sense of community amongst the Japanese people and a strong devotion to the hierarchy. That means following socially acceptable norms of the times, and not questioning this hierarchy nor the government. You did what you were told.

Strong community cohesiveness was very important for the Japanese back then, even during the most difficult of times. Giving was more important than receiving. Trust was not earned, it was given regardless of who you were. Your word was your bond.

Virtues such as patience, kindness, mercy, and devotion to the martial spirit were common place. Letters and the arts flourished in ancient Japan and people strove to excel in these areas. There was a sense of wholesomeness and purity that transcended money and power.

Modern Japan has all but forgotten about the core virtues. Many of them focus only on their jobs and careers while caring very little about other people. Trust no longer exists outside of each person’s closed community, and people no longer greet strangers nor do they open their doors to them. The computer is the new paradigm for socializing. Young people have become more withdrawn from society, no longer able to deal with the pressures of dating, marriage, and career.

Many young working professionals have settled for mediocre positions within their companies because they have no interest in being promoted. Japanese culture has lost a lot of its appeal with the younger generation. Japanese kids are more interested in Christmas and Halloween and celebrations that have nothing to do with their own culture and history. Selfishness has replaced generosity. The ancient ways of Bushido are no longer taught in modern academia, and is considered old and outdated. Where there was trust, now there is fear. Where there was hope, now there is doubt.

What’s left are fragmented pieces of Japan’s culture. You can still see the culture in its cuisine, but little by little you see more fusion concepts being adapted into Japanese cooking. National sports such as Sumo, Judo, and Kendo are no longer considered sacred and pure, now these sports are tainted in scandal over criminal allegations of misconduct.

You can still see the beautiful kimonos being worn on special occasions. Classical theater can still be enjoyed. Japan still observes its …

"Ancient Japanese Culture and Modern Japan – The Impacts Seen Today"

Sports Betting Tips – How to Bet on Futures

You may or may not have already learned that future bets are wagers placed far in advance of a sporting event after reading our Overview of Sports Gambling Bet Types. The basics are all there, so the purpose of this article is to explain why futures offer such strong value and give tips on improving your chances to win when betting futures.

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting when oddsmakers first release them or well before an event is decided. For example, placing a future wager on the Kentucky Derby a month ahead of time can get you a much better price on a horse than betting much closer to the race when the real contenders are revealed for all to see. Future odds are not set and can be adjusted by sportsbooks periodically, but the odds at the time of your wager are the odds you are locked into.

A futures bet example with major team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts. An NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason, but by midseason, those odds might decrease to 10/1 if the team turns out to be a legitimate championship contender.

It’s important to note that sportsbooks can change futures at any time, and they are available to be bet all the way until the event gets underway. Future bets are also not restricted to the championship game, as you can bet on who will win a conference or division too.

Future bets in NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball are team-oriented in that you bet on the team’s performance while proposition bets on non-team future events that involve individuals like boxing, tennis, golf and NASCAR are also available. Keep in mind that with futures you are always betting that the event will happen, on whether the team will accomplish something such as a championship and not against their chances of doing so. For example, if Duke is 5/1 to win the NCAA Basketball Championship, you can bet $100 on Duke and will win $500 if they win it all – but with standard future betting you cannot bet against Duke winning it all.

Tips to Win

The key to betting futures is realizing their true value and using the right Tips to Win. The most important consideration is determining what changes a team has made to enhance their chances of vying for a championship like the Super Bowl or World Series. Draft choices, coaching changes, free-agent signings, trades and returning starters all impact a team’s ability to compete, so each aspect should be considered when making your future bet.

The Draft

The draft is a much bigger factor in NBA basketball and NFL football since a rookie can approach superstar status much earlier (i.e. LeBron James) than other sports like …

"Sports Betting Tips – How to Bet on Futures"

Volcom Clothing – Youth on the Cutting Edge

If you are into surfing, skateboarding or snowboarding, you will want to check out Volcom clothing. Whether you are looking for surfboard shorts, contemporary T-Shirts, insulated jackets and pants for snowboarding or Chino walking shorts, Volcom offers the most unique sports clothing line you can find on the Internet.

Volcom makes clothing for youths who refuse to conform but want to express themselves through exciting sports. While surfing, skateboarding and snowboarding are not always necessarily on the cutting edge of extreme sports, if you practice enough to get good at it, soon you will be performing edgy, exciting tricks.

The originators of Volcom clothing (Richard Woolcott and Tucker Hall) spend most of their time skateboarding, surfing and snowboarding, and they know what kind of style people who enjoy these sports prefer.

The designers at Volcom clothing never try to get you to wear impractical “sports wear” resembling current fashions. Instead, they offer you designs dreamt up by sports enthusiasts who happen to be artists, so that your clothing will always be both edgy and practical for your favorite boarding sport.

Whether you are looking for men’s board shorts for surfing or for women’s beach attire, you can find Volcom apparel to meet your needs. Volcom designs jeans, T-Shirts, sandals and hoodies in all colors and unique styles.

When you go online to look for Volcom clothes, you will find that there is a whole Volcom culture on the Internet that espouses the Youth Against Establishment mantra started by Woolcott and Hall in 1993. You will also find that HSSSurf.com has an excpetional selection of Volcom clothes and accessories.…

"Volcom Clothing – Youth on the Cutting Edge"

Contribution of Different Disciplines to Leisure and Tourism Studies

Leisure and tourism studies are characterized by a diversity of approaches which come from different disciplines and use a variety of methods. As a result, studies often use an inter-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary approach, drawing on different frames of reference and different methodological approaches for conducting studies. To this end, researchers involved in doing research projects should take into consideration the research questions they want to answer based on the purpose of the research, such as whether to do a research study to build on the academic store of knowledge or to do a study for a professional client or business organization that is interested in research for marketing purposes. A researcher might regard these different approaches like a tool-kit which he or she can draw on, as appropriate, for doing a study on a particular topic for a particular purpose.

The different disciplines which have different approaches include these:

– the sociological approach, which has provided much of the foundation for leisure research, though much less for tourism studies. The sociological approach involves three major thrusts. One is doing social surveys, some of which is done for pragmatic reasons, and this is considered social research rather than truly academically-oriented sociological research. Such surveys involve a quantitative approach, based on using statistics and mathematical models of human behavior to make predictions about human behavior. This is sometimes called the “surveys and modeling approach.” A second sociological approach seeks to explain why people behave as they do in choosing the leisure activities they engage in; it is designed to look at the meaning of leisure participation or non-participation to different groups of people. One such approach to discovering meaning is the existential and symbolic interaction approach, which considers the way people negotiate their leisure participation in light of their relationships of different types – from personal and social relationships to their relationships with their community and networks at work. Finally, a third sociological approach is the critical approach which has taken various forms. One is the neo-Marxist approach which has looked at the way in which individuals can act freely and the degree to which they are constrained and influenced by the structure of their society. A key aspect of this approach has been criticizing the capitalist system for exploiting or manipulating people within the system who have little power. Numerous streams of critical theory have influenced this perspective over the last few decades, including the feminist perspective that has looked at the way women have responded to leisure in light of their lesser power in society. Some other critical approaches have included postmodernism, which has explored the role of electronic communications and the cultural artifacts produced by it. It has been especially interested in the content of these expressions of culture rather than in the behavior of the people creating those cultural artifacts.

– the geographic approach, which have been especially interested in the way spaces and landscapes affect people’s behavior and their perception of those spaces and landscapes, especially in …

"Contribution of Different Disciplines to Leisure and Tourism Studies"

The Fallacy of a 52.4 Break Even Rate

All over the internet I see people, even professional sports bettors, claim that a 52.4% win rate is required to break even betting on sports. The idea being brought forth is that in order to profit you must win more than half of your games.

That is a very dangerous idea. It leads people to take bad odds trying to achieve that rate. It also leads them away from better odds that make it easier to profit. The fact is, the win rate required to break even or profit is not set. It is totally dependent on the lines you play, and can range from 40 to 60 percent, or even more.

If you asked most sports bettors, the believe they will be able to quickly retire if they could only find a way to win 60% of their bets. That may be true if you bet exclusively on point spreads. But if you do that on money lines of -200 the only thing that will happen quickly is that you go bankrupt.

Win rates and profitability are relative to the lines you play. One player may win 55% of their bets and lose money, while another may win 45% at a good profit. The truth is, win rate has little to do with profiting on betting on sports.

The player who bets only at +150 will break even at a 40% win rate, while the player who bets only at -150 will break even at 60%. The big question you should ask yourself is this. Is it easier to win 40% at +150, or 60% at -150?

The answer is that it is easier to win 40% at +150. The reason is that the books have to shade toward the dogs because most people tend to bet on favorites. That’s the inevitable result of the popular notion that you must win more than half of your bets to profit.

It easy enough to see in the lines. When a dog is +150, the favorite is usually close to -170. This example below is from Vegas Insider.

11/11 1:05 PM

51 Tampa Bay Boston

+150 -170

+150 -170

In order to break even on the favorite at -170, you must win 63% of the time. To break even on the dog at +150, you must win 40% of the time. In this case, a bet on the favorite is being charged an extra 20 because most bets will be on them, while the dog is going at the books estimation of the actual probabilities of the outcome.

When it comes to point spreads, you do in fact need 52.4% to break even at -110, and all players share the vig. But on money lines, the vig always gets paid by those who bet on the favorites. And you will find almost every line reflects a 3% differential (63+40=103%). Not coincidentally, that pretty much reflects the break even percentage of your average spread bet.

The best advice is to forget about …

"The Fallacy of a 52.4 Break Even Rate"