Who Invented Track and Field? – A Short History of the Sport

Like many of today’s action sports, track and field has its origins in the first Olympics in Greece. When you begin to investigate who invented track and field, you find that, again, like soccer, track and field disappeared during the “dark” ages, and reappeared with modern organization during the 1800’s.

Since they did not have jeeps and tanks and trucks in the ancient world, soldiers took pride in their athleticism. Running was one of the very first competitive sports, and it is a favorite of today’s games as well. There is some dispute as to exactly when the Olympic Games began, with a gap in guesses from 776 BC to as early as the ninth or tenth century BC.

There was a gap in the games as well, during the Middle Ages. In 1896, they were again held in Athens, as organizers tried to bring back the ancient tradition. One feature of these games was what is now known as a “marathon race”. It was called “marathon” to honor the run made by Pheidippides in 490 BC from the Greek city of Marathon to Sparta. He ran the entire day in order to warn fellow soldiers of Persian invasions at Marathon. That distance was about 149 miles; today’s races are about 26 miles, considerably shorter. When London hosted the 1908 Olympics, their “marathon” run was 26 miles 385 yards (42,195 kilometers), from starting point to the stadium.

So, if you want to consider who invented track and field, you might want to give that honor to Pheidippides. However, bronze tripods were discovered that pre-date his run, to the tenth century BC, that some believe may have been awards for earlier games at Olympia. Or, if you want to look at the more sophisticated development of track and field, consider the year 1849, in England, when the Royal Military Academy organized their first track and field meet. Perhaps they should receive credit for who invented track and field?

Ancient games eventually expanded to include more races, boxing, wrestling, and a pentathlon with five running, throwing, and jumping events. In the US, organized track and field events date from the 1860’s. Collegiate and amateur groups were formed here in 1873 and 1888 respectively. Organized sporting events for men grew with the first NCAA national championships in 1921. Women, who had only recently received suffrage in the US, were included in the games in 1928. Making history, in 1952, the Soviet Union sent its first teams to the Olympics. The fierce competition between the USSR and the USA ran for the duration of the Cold War, over the next 30 years. In standard Olympic tradition, wars are suspended for the duration to enable all countries to participate in peace.

Today, favorite events include multiple sport competitions in the Pentathlon (5 sports), Heptathlon (7), and Decathlon (10). The Athletics Congress (US), and the International Amateur Athletics Congress determine the sporting rules. Games are limited to amateurs; professional athletes cannot participate or they are banned.…

"Who Invented Track and Field? – A Short History of the Sport"

Do not Aim for the Ribs – Boxing How To Guide on the Right Hook Body Shot

Another in our series of boxing how to guides on body punching, this one examining the right hook (or back hand hook) to the body.

Knowing how to throw a right hook to the body enables you to deliver massive power to a very specific and precise location; the soft tissue below the ribs on the left side of the opponent's body. It is worth understanding that you are not aiming for the ribs. The rib cage is by design a tough structure. For maximum impact it's far better to take the path of least resistance and strike the soft tissue.

In general, and depending upon your position in relation to your opponent, this body punch is designed to hit the spot behind the guarding arm of the opponent. Precision is great, but raw power and aggression is the trick to knowing how to get the most from this crushing body punch.

Before we get onto the mechanics of how to throw the right hook to the body, you need to be aware that this is not a right uppercut. I'm sure plenty will decide that this is an uppercut, but really it is not. There is a subtle difference between a short range hook and a short range uppercut, with the uppercut to the body striking home in the center of mass. Understand this difference and it will have a positive impact on your body punching skills.

Boxing How to Guide – The Mechanics

  1. From the boxing stance, bend your knees in order to lower your centre of gravity. This is quite simply a duck, which aside from being a defensive action also acts as a precursor to a body strike.
  2. As the duck is taking place, generate an explosive thrust by pushing from the ball of your back foot. This thrust provides the energy to deliver massive rotation of the upper body (counter-clockwise from the orthodox stance).
  3. The bend of your front leg (from the duck) enables the necessary amount of hip rotation. Without the bend, your hips will complete maybe only 25{64aad3a316df32ff60dab9c8534014c5cfdef308ef860a6ce60ff66eaa8cfaf6} of the rotation necessary to give the punch the required power on impact.
  4. During the rotation, release your back hand in an arc at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground. Ensure that the punch accelerates towards the target to add to the massive leverage produced during the rotation; this is how you will maximize the power.
  5. Return your arm and body to the starting position as per the boxing stance.

Boxing How to Guide – Common Faults

  1. Be aware of your range. Be sure that if you use this punch at a longer range the opponent is vulnerable to it. In short, the further you are away from the opponent when using this shot, the greater the risk of you taking a punch before yours lands. Reduce the risk of a long range 'bombing' with this punch by stepping in with a jab ahead of letting loose with the hook to the body.
"Do not Aim for the Ribs – Boxing How To Guide on the Right Hook Body Shot"

Coaching Steve Kerr – Reflections on My Time With the Nba’s Greatest Shooter

As a wide-eyed graduate assistant basketball coach at the University of Arizona in 1985, I felt as if I had arrived. Laboring as a high school coach for five years offered good experience but could never have prepared me for the next 24 months. Knowing Coach Lute Olson from my undergraduate days at the University of Iowa helped me land this once in a lifetime opportunity. My wife and I had just been married a year earlier and took this adventure on with open arms. We both worked full time and hardly saw each other long enough to catch up. We both had agreed that embracing the profession of college coaching would take every ounce of energy and creativity we had. We were poised to make the most of this two year position on the Wildcat staff.

The 1985-86 season was just the third of many years that Hall of Fame Coach Lute Olson would roam the sidelines at Arizona. The rebuilding process began two years earlier and mapped out a great future path for the program. Among those who Olson signed late in the spring of 1983 was Steve Kerr, an “Opie” Taylor look alike from Southern California. He had caught the eye of Olson during a late summer league game with his ability to shoot from all over the floor. Minus a step of quickness and a load of athleticism, Kerr jumped at the opportunity and enrolled at Arizona that fall.

Not long after hitting campus it was evident that Kerr had the makings of a special player. He had the knowledge and moxy of a veteran NBA guard to go along with his long range shooting ability. He assimilated into the Wildcat program with ease and became a leader immediately on and off the floor. Kerr was beginning his third season at college the fall we joined the Arizona staff.

Immediately after arriving in Tucson I charged full speed into my new position. A self proclaimed organization freak, I got set up in my new office. Actually it was a film room with a narrow table propped up against the wall. I would have worked in the dugout of the Jerry Kindall baseball field if I had to. Taking on every task imaginable filled my days as I settled in. My running mate, Tom Billeter, was also a graduate assistant and we became inseparable for the next two years. Recruiting, practice, weights, conditioning, study table, and game preparation were all part of the job and we embraced it 24 hours a day.

A month into our first season I began to get comfortable with the staff and team. Six freshmen dotted the roster including high school All-American Sean Elliott of nearby Cholla HS. It was evident early on that Kerr was as nasty and competitive as they come. Nasty in the sense that nothing he was associated with would be defeated, a trait that coaches covet. When a mother duck feels threatened she will do anything to …

"Coaching Steve Kerr – Reflections on My Time With the Nba’s Greatest Shooter"

The Progress of Boxing and Boxing Equipment

Boxing is an ancient sport. Although it has not always been around in its current form fighting using fists for sport, entertainment and betting has been around for thousands of years. Since then times have changed, boxing equipment improved and techniques altered.

Take the boxing ring as a perfect example. Although a square now with predefined measurements (anything between 16 and 25 feet a side) its name is a throw back to the roughly drawn rings of history. In Greek and then Roman times boxing, whilst lacking the boxing equipment of the modern era, was a much loved sport. Using chalk rings boxers would go in bare knuckled and try to knock out the opponent, usually for a cash prize. Many wagers were made and the betting on such sports was a way of life, especially in the military.

Times have moved, new boxing equipment been developed and in 1838 the first 'square ring' was introduced by the Pugilistic society, with ropes secured around the edge. This has continued now and you will usually find such square rings atop raised platforms with four parallel ropes running around the outside, usually secured at the mid way point.

Whereas the Greeks and Romans would fight bare knuckle in a tradition that would last centuries such fighting is now considered dangerous, with too many boughts ending in serious injury or death. Thankfully modern technology has allowed us the use of pads and gloves as well as other boxing equipment that, whilst still ensuring a punch is delivered with force, help minimize the risk of severe injury to a level in line with most other impact sports.

Boxing gloves are now designed to spread the force of a blow over a wider area, ensuring a smaller chance of sustaining head and brain injuries. Color : as color : such equipment Boxing pads the shields and help stop and dissipate the force of blows in sparring practice, meaning less skilled boxers are On Able to use color : such boxing equipment – Including : punch bags to help a skilled boxer train for a fight.

It's not just safety that has moved on either. Throughout history strength was the most prized asset of a fighter, the ability to take and give punches considered all important. Slowly over the last century or two that has changed, and now speed of feet and speed of hand are just as important, if not more so.

To that end new boxing equipment has been developed from plyometric speed equipment to the speedball and platform. The speedball is a very clever, and basic, development. It is a ball, suspended by a spring loaded platform that is designed to swing back into place swiftly. The idea behind this piece of boxing equipment is that it trains the boxers speed of hand and hand eye co-ordination. Attributes that are vital to the modern day boxer.

But whilst boxing equipment, techniques and training methods may have moved on from ancient times the idea …

"The Progress of Boxing and Boxing Equipment"

How Your Business Can Work Like a Football Team

Crisp fall days, the roar of the crowd, the aroma of the tailgate barbeques in the parking lot. If you can’t tell already, I am a football fanatic. I love the game, from my days playing in high school, to watching my favorite teams, to coaching and watching my two sons, I love everything about football.

So it’s little wonder that I see so many similarities between the way a great football team runs, and a great business. Football is the greatest team game, and successful businesses aren’t successful without great teamwork. Let’s look at five ways you can get your business working like the most successful football teams.

No football team, whether college or professional, gets anywhere on the field without first assembling a roster of top talent. Isaac Cheifetz, in “Hiring Secrets of the NFL”, points out that on every NFL football team, management has to know what the “true musts” of each position are. These are usually a variety of skills and behaviors. For instance, a quarterback must have great composure, awareness, and be calm under pressure. Likewise in the business world, an all-star salesperson must have great tenacity, communication skill, and professionalism.

Let’s compare the way top college and pro football teams select the talent for their roster with how your business select its talent. Professional football teams especially, put their prospective employees through exhaustive analysis and measurement in every way. They don’t just measure physical attributes, or experience but spend hours and hours interviewing candidates, their former coaches, teammates and other people with relevant input on their past behavior and performance.

How much time do you put into selecting new employees for your business? I’m sure you’re interviewing, and checking qualifications. But are you really going deep into what makes them any better or worse than other candidates. How extensive are your interviews? What assessment tools do you use to confirm your interview findings? How do you measure fit with your culture and environment?

Several years ago, the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) conducted a study on the habits of most hiring managers. They found that in large majority, over 65{64aad3a316df32ff60dab9c8534014c5cfdef308ef860a6ce60ff66eaa8cfaf6}, hiring decisions happened in the first 4.3 minutes of an interview. They also found that only 11{64aad3a316df32ff60dab9c8534014c5cfdef308ef860a6ce60ff66eaa8cfaf6} of these hires ever lasted more than 6 months with the company. Not a great track record.

Football is the greatest teamwork game. No other game that I’ve played before has been so dependent on every single player on the field. Each has to do their role exceptionally to have success. Not even the most physically gifted running back or quarterback can do well with an offensive line that takes too many plays off, or just doesn’t feel like working today.

I’ve had the good fortune of being able to coach youth football for many years, starting with kids as young as eight years old. It never fails that after the first game, the two or three players that actually moved the ball into the end …

"How Your Business Can Work Like a Football Team"

Strength Training For Basketball – Weight Training Tips to Make You a Dominant Force on the Court

In today’s game good skills are not enough. If you get out-hustled, out-run and pushed all over the court by your opponent, they’re going to beat you, even if they have less talent.

Strength training for basketball players is essential for success in today’s game, even at the high school level, and is for all positions from guard to center. A good weight training program can transform your game, helping you to go up stronger, drive the lane harder, hold your own in the key and last for more minutes on the court, which means better stats, more wins and better chances of a scholarship.

In this article I’m going to show you 3 weight training principles that will help you to gain more muscle mass, but keep it functional, strong and explosive, which will help you to play better basketball.

Progressive Overload

The idea of progressive overload is a muscle building principle that top bodybuilders use and has been proven as one of the most effective techniques to help skinny guys pack on muscle mass and gain crazy amounts of strength.

The technique relies on constantly increasing the amount of weight you lift each time you go to the gym, so that your body is always forced to adapt and grows muscle faster to compensate for the increased load.

Making progressive overload a part of your strength training for basketball workouts will ensure you are constantly building muscle mass AND increasing strength and power.

High Intensity and Periodization

Making sure your strength and weight training for basketball workouts are high intensity is a second key factor in increasing your strength. Many guys fail to keep their workouts at a high intensity with short disciplined rest periods.

You need to get in and get out of the gym, in less than an hour. Performing your workouts at high intensity will help you do this, plus you’ll see an added benefit in increased strength and muscle size.

Periodization is important to keep your workouts varied and prevent you seeing a plateau in your muscle and strength gains. It relies on you changing up your workouts regularly so that your body does not get used to one type of training.

This is especially important for basketball players as your strength training for basketball routines need to be flexible and varied anyway, reflecting the different physical aspects of the game – strength and power, speed and agility, and explosiveness.

3:1 Rep Tempo For Explosiveness

To improve your explosiveness try incorporating a 3:1 tempo in your strength training for basketball routines. For example, if you are performing a bench press, the down part should take you 3 times longer than the up part (which should be explosive).

This technique is a great way to work on your explosiveness and recruit maximum muscle fibre throughout the exercise, giving you an added bonus of extra gains in muscle mass.…

"Strength Training For Basketball – Weight Training Tips to Make You a Dominant Force on the Court"

Sports Article Writing – 3 Basic Elements of Effective Sports Article Writing

1. In-depth knowledge. As a sports writer, it’s very important that you know and deeply understand the sports that you are writing about. That is why, it is highly recommended that you focus your attention on those sports that you’re playing in the past or those that you find really, really interesting. It will also help if you watch the games and if you do your research. I am pretty sure that there are a lot of traditional books and magazines about any sport that you can think of.

2. High level writing skills. Having in-depth working knowledge on your chosen sports isn’t enough. As a writer, it’s important that you know how to put together great content that your readers will find not only informative but entertaining as well. Improve your writing skills by simply reading as many sports articles as possible, by attending sports writing seminars, and by learning from renowned sports writers.

3. Topics. There are so many topics that you can cover when you are a sports writer. However, if you really want to capture the attention of your target audience, you must focus your attention on those that they find really, really interesting. Aside from writing about the latest games, you can also write human interest stories. For example, you can write problems that affect the lives of certain players (like Tiger Woods and his marital problem) or write an article about certain NBA teams who are doing charity work. These types of topics will surely help you get your audience to read your articles.…

"Sports Article Writing – 3 Basic Elements of Effective Sports Article Writing"

A Different Type of Culture With Los Angeles Attractions

One of the most interest attractions in Los Angeles is the Museum of Tolerance.  This museum is located in the city limits.  The motive of the museum is to teach people about not being bias against others, whether they’re of a different race, creed or religion. 

The museum has over 300,000 visitors each year.  It’s not just limited to students that are visiting during a field trip, either.  The museum also welcomes visitors that come from different backgrounds, such as corporate executives, law enforcement personnel and educators.

The Museum of Tolerance features an Arts and Lectures series.  This series has films that have won different awards and other events that focus on human rights.  This museum is one of a kind and there is not another one like it in the United States.  Since 1993, the Museum of Tolerance has served over four million visitors, which include children and youth.

The best part about the concert hall is the acoustics.  This is what the Walt Disney Concert Hall stands out among other concert hall facilities in the world.  The facility is home to some of the best musical groups around, such as the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Los Angeles Master Chorale.  These groups pride themselves on playing here and they don’t take it for granted.

What would the Los Angeles area be without Venice and Venice Beach?  Venice is located in the western part of Los Angeles.  It is best known for its beaches, canals and the Ocean Front Walk, which is set up in a circus-type atmosphere. 

You can find all different types of vendors, fortune-tellers, street performers, artists, bikini-wearing skaters, basketball (make sure you have your “A” game for that), and believe it or now, Hare Krishnas and belly dancers.

The Venice area is one of the most popular and important tourist attractions in the Los Angeles and Southern California areas.

In the summertime is when the Venice area has the most activity going on.  There’s activity during the winter season as well, but only on weekends.  The Venice Boardwalk area is a great place for walking and riding your bicycle. 

The best time to come is midday or wait until late during the weekend.  The area has a lot going on until darkness hits.  Then it gets quiet until the next day. 

This is just a taste of the many attractions you will find in Los Angeles.  It would take you a lifetime to see all of them.…

"A Different Type of Culture With Los Angeles Attractions"

How Today's Voters Are Too Much Like Sports Fans

They will support their team regardless of how bad they suck or how terrible they are performing.

Teams have slogans that the fans will not only advertise for free, but actually pay for.

They will then wear the slogan loud and proud everywhere they go like a walking billboard.

When a fan sees another fan sporting the same logo as them, they become instant friends and agree about everything.

When they see someone sporting the rival team's logo, they become instant enemy combatants and disagree about everything regardless of substance.

Scandals, cheating, bad performance, horrible track records and lying does not affect the opinion they have on their team. It only emphasizes the idea that someone is making stuff up, the fact that it was an accident, or it's all lies.

One team's fans will show up to the other team's game just to show their team's slogan off and let the other team know how much they suck.

If someone critiques your team, they basically just stabbed you in the soul.

If someone complements your team, you feel as if you have been personally complemented because you feel as if you are solely responsible for your team's success.

When one team is winning, they belittle the losing team.

When that team starts losing, they attack and become violent to the other team's supporters.

Fans will put their team's logo on their vehicle so people behind them know how serious they are about that team.

When there is a traffic confrontation and the person who was at fault happens to be sporting a team's logo, that person is immediately judged by the team they support and nothing else.

If a team won, it is as if it was a personal achievement among the fan and he was solely responsible for the win.

If a team lost, the game was rigged and the winner cheated.

Some broadcast agencies favor a team and give biased opinions that are claimed to be fair and neutral.

Other broadcast agencies make it their agenda to scrutinize every move a team makes, rendering them incompetent regardless of the true circumstances.

When someone who does not have a team, is asked by someone who does have a team: "Who is your team?"

The smart person responds "I do not have a team."

That's because the smart person does not need a team to force views and opinions into his head. He understands that politics should not be looked at as a partisan view where one side is bad and the other is good.

Politics must not be treated as a sport.

Politics must not be focused on winning

Politics should be focused on policy and substance.

And that's it.

People despise the other party, not based off the policies, but loyalty to their own party. This is the same driving force that causes people to dislike other sports teams.

FSU fans do not dislike Alabama fans because they have good players, great plays, and good management … …

"How Today's Voters Are Too Much Like Sports Fans"

BCAA’s For MMA Fighters

In the highly competitive sport of mixed martial arts, the difference between winning and losing is often small. Combat athletes pay attention to every aspect of the fight game and now more then ever because of the immense popularity of the UFC, Strikeforce, WEC and Dream. Athletic performance and training to win is the goal not only for every MMA fighter, but also for any other competitive athlete. One great weapon for every athlete is the anabolic amino supplement Branch Chain Amino Acids. BCAA’s consist of three essential amino acids leucine, valine, and isoleucine. BCAA sports supplements help rebuild muscles after intense exercise and stress. During training, you will burn up fat and stored carbohydrates as fuel, due to the extreme training methods that go along with mixed marital arts; our bodies will next turn to protein as fuel. When this happens our muscles will use up these aminos and that will cause our body to turn into a catabolic state, which leads to over training and possible injury.

Amino acids and BCAA’s offer many benefits to the MMA athlete that include:

  • Muscle recovery
  • Help prevent muscle catabolism
  • Promote Protein synthesis
  • Fuel workouts
  • Boost Metabolism

Over the last ten years sports nutrition experts have found that you can increase the time of recovery by taking certain nutrients immediately following strenuous exercise. Experts agree that this could be the most important time for the athlete to supplement with a muscle recovery supplement like L-leucine, l-valine, and l-isoleucine. Amino acid supplements along with a combination of protein and fast acting carbohydrates help build muscle, increase testosterone, and help maintain a positive nitrogen balance for the athlete. Some other great recovery aids that work well with bcaa’s are:

  • L-glutamine
  • ZMA
  • Creatine
  • HMB
  • Beta alanine

Any sport where weight classes are involved translates to competitors training on limited amounts of calories. The supplement branch chain amino acid has been shown to lower overall bodyweight and a decrease in body fat percentage. Athletes have also experienced a reduction in abdominal adipose tissue. When training for a fight or competition on a low calorie diet, introducing BCAA’s to your program may help you lose more weight without compromising your performance in the ring or cage. The best way for fighters to take BCAA’s is to take it 30 minutes before training and one serving immediately after your workout. MMA athletes should shoot for 50mg of bcaa’s per pound of body weight for maximum results.…

"BCAA’s For MMA Fighters"