Basketball: the Object of the Game

Basketball is a fast paced game played on a 94-by-50 foot court (NBA) with 1 basket on opposite sides.

The game starts when the official tosses the ball between two players, one from each team, in the middle of the court. This is also referred to as the tip off. The other 8 players stand at specific places outside the mid-circle. The jumpers will try to tip the ball to any of their team members to gain the first possession.

The goal is to score more points than their opponents.

In the professional setting, the game is divided into 2 halfs or 4 quarters. Each quarter is 12 minutes long.

During each possession, the offensive team has a time limit to shoot the ball in the basket. This is called the shot clock. The NBA rule allows 24 seconds for each possession. In college basketball, the shot clock is set for 35 seconds.

There are basically 2 ways to shoot and score in a basketball game: shooting when the ball is in play and from the free throw line.

There are several ways to score during play. You can either take a perimeter shot or drive toward the basket. You can score 3 points if you shoot the ball beyond the arc. There are also variations for jump shots including from the baseline, the key, fade away, hook shot, and more. Variations of shots made inside the paint include dunk, layup, and tip-in.

Free throws are earned when the opposing team committs a technical foul or a personal foul. Two free throw shots are awarded when the opposing team committs a technical foul or a personal foul in the act of shooting or within the team penalty. One free throw shot is given to the player who made a shot and receives a foul in the process.

Each player is allowed to commit 5 personal fouls for each game to continue playing. The 6th foul will automatically force the player to retire for the rest of the game. Each player is automatically out of the game if he receives 2 technical fouls. The team is allowed to commits 5 fouls for each quarter before entering the penalty. Every foul made inside the penalty will put their opposing team to shoot free throws. 

In the event where the scores are tied at the end of the fourth quarter (or at the end of the regulation period), a 5-minute overtime period is played. If the score is still tied at the end of the overtime period, a second overtime will be played, and so on… until a team wins a game.

Note: other basketball leagues and basketball associations such as FIBA follow their own sets of rules.…

"Basketball: the Object of the Game"

The History of Riddell Football Helmets – Protecting Your Noggin Since 1939

Back in 1929, John Tate Riddell started his company armed with a vision of providing better sporting equipment to athletes. And such idea has proven to be very beneficial, not only for JT Riddell but for the players as well, for from this concept of his came forth the country's foremost manufacturer of football headgear.

Removable cleat — the history of Riddell football helmets all began with a removable cleat. Said design was prepared by Riddell back when he was still the Athletic Director and at the same time head of the football coaching staff for a certain high school located in Evanston, Illinois. The year was 1922 when head coach saw the need for developing the current leather-fitted footwear for his team. With the arrival of the rainy season, such condition dictates the necessity of changing cleats and installing a longer mud cleat to adapt with said variable. This process is time consuming, not to mention that the cobbler in-charged of doing such task was also hired by a university ergo not being able to finish all footgear by game time. The invention of removable cleats was openly welcomed and such flamed a string of innovations that led to the groundwork for the history of Riddell football helmets.

Ten years after the formation of the company, Riddell pioneered the fist plastic suspension headgear. This breakthrough caught the attention of the government for it will certainly be to the advantage of the brave men in WW II. This is one of the finest points in the history of Riddell football helmets.

With protection as the main goal, it is hard to believe that helmets, rather than pads, were the last to be accepted in pro football. The former is not even mandatory in football — that is until 1939 when NFL ordered that players wear such protective headgear. Before the dawn of plastic helmets, there was leather. The players may be protected against concussions but not the heat — air can barely circulate inside.

Evolution is inevitable; same applies in the history of Riddell football helmets. RT-2 was the first helmet engineered by the company and sold to the public. Said helmet model was manufactured in 1946, a year after JT Riddell's death. RT-2 was a three-pieced shell using Tenite II with cotton web suspension for the head and neck. Said suspension presents a pocket of air in between the head and the shell of the helmet. Though Riddell was not able to actually see the evolution and expansion of his company, he'll always live in every noggin he has protected, whether it's attached to an amateur or professional football player.

Following RT-2 was RK-4. The latter resembles the shape of RT-2, though it's shell material differs. RK-4 was manufactured utilizing a chemical called Acrilonitrile Butadiene Styrene concocted by US Rubber. The cotton webbing that was present in the RT-2 was substituted by a combo of cotton and nylon. Both models showcased the 3-loop and 6-point regular suspension.

The history …

"The History of Riddell Football Helmets – Protecting Your Noggin Since 1939"